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finc.mega_collection Copernicus GmbH (CrossRef)
finc.id ai-49-aHR0cDovL2R4LmRvaS5vcmcvMTAuNTE5NC9iZy0xNy0xMzQzLTIwMjA
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ris.type EJOUR
rft.atitle Scaling carbon fluxes from eddy covariance sites to globe: synthesis and evaluation of the FLUXCOM approach
rft.epage 1365
rft.genre article
rft.issn 1726-4189
rft.issue 5
rft.jtitle Biogeosciences
rft.tpages 23
rft.pages 1343-1365
rft.pub Copernicus GmbH
rft.date 2020-03-16
x.date 2020-03-16T00:00:00Z
rft.spage 1343
rft.volume 17
abstract <jats:p>Abstract. FLUXNET comprises globally distributed eddy-covariance-based estimates of carbon fluxes between the biosphere and the atmosphere. Since eddy covariance flux towers have a relatively small footprint and are distributed unevenly across the world, upscaling the observations is necessary to obtain global-scale estimates of biosphere–atmosphere exchange. Based on cross-consistency checks with atmospheric inversions, sun-induced fluorescence (SIF) and dynamic global vegetation models (DGVMs), here we provide a systematic assessment of the latest upscaling efforts for gross primary production (GPP) and net ecosystem exchange (NEE) of the FLUXCOM initiative, where different machine learning methods, forcing data sets and sets of predictor variables were employed. Spatial patterns of mean GPP are consistent across FLUXCOM and DGVM ensembles (R2&gt;0.94 at 1∘ spatial resolution) while the majority of DGVMs show, for 70 % of the land surface, values outside the FLUXCOM range. Global mean GPP magnitudes for 2008–2010 from FLUXCOM members vary within 106 and 130 PgC yr−1 with the largest uncertainty in the tropics. Seasonal variations in independent SIF estimates agree better with FLUXCOM GPP (mean global pixel-wise R2∼0.75) than with GPP from DGVMs (mean global pixel-wise R2∼0.6). Seasonal variations in FLUXCOM NEE show good consistency with atmospheric inversion-based net land carbon fluxes, particularly for temperate and boreal regions (R2&gt;0.92). Interannual variability of global NEE in FLUXCOM is underestimated compared to inversions and DGVMs. The FLUXCOM version which also uses meteorological inputs shows a strong co-variation in interannual patterns with inversions (R2=0.87 for 2001–2010). Mean regional NEE from FLUXCOM shows larger uptake than inversion and DGVM-based estimates, particularly in the tropics with discrepancies of up to several hundred grammes of carbon per square metre per year. These discrepancies can only partly be reconciled by carbon loss pathways that are implicit in inversions but not captured by the flux tower measurements such as carbon emissions from fires and water bodies. We hypothesize that a combination of systematic biases in the underlying eddy covariance data, in particular in tall tropical forests, and a lack of site history effects on NEE in FLUXCOM are likely responsible for the too strong tropical carbon sink estimated by FLUXCOM. Furthermore, as FLUXCOM does not account for CO2 fertilization effects, carbon flux trends are not realistic. Overall, current FLUXCOM estimates of mean annual and seasonal cycles of GPP as well as seasonal NEE variations provide useful constraints of global carbon cycling, while interannual variability patterns from FLUXCOM are valuable but require cautious interpretation. Exploring the diversity of Earth observation data and of machine learning concepts along with improved quality and quantity of flux tower measurements will facilitate further improvements of the FLUXCOM approach overall. </jats:p>
authors Array ( [rft.aulast] => Jung [rft.aufirst] => Martin )
Array ( [rft.aulast] => Schwalm [rft.aufirst] => Christopher )
Array ( [rft.aulast] => Migliavacca [rft.aufirst] => Mirco )
Array ( [rft.aulast] => Walther [rft.aufirst] => Sophia )
Array ( [rft.aulast] => Camps-Valls [rft.aufirst] => Gustau )
Array ( [rft.aulast] => Koirala [rft.aufirst] => Sujan )
Array ( [rft.aulast] => Anthoni [rft.aufirst] => Peter )
Array ( [rft.aulast] => Besnard [rft.aufirst] => Simon )
Array ( [rft.aulast] => Bodesheim [rft.aufirst] => Paul )
Array ( [rft.aulast] => Carvalhais [rft.aufirst] => Nuno )
Array ( [rft.aulast] => Chevallier [rft.aufirst] => Frédéric )
Array ( [rft.aulast] => Gans [rft.aufirst] => Fabian )
Array ( [rft.aulast] => Goll [rft.aufirst] => Daniel S. )
Array ( [rft.aulast] => Haverd [rft.aufirst] => Vanessa )
Array ( [rft.aulast] => Köhler [rft.aufirst] => Philipp )
Array ( [rft.aulast] => Ichii [rft.aufirst] => Kazuhito )
Array ( [rft.aulast] => Jain [rft.aufirst] => Atul K. )
Array ( [rft.aulast] => Liu [rft.aufirst] => Junzhi )
Array ( [rft.aulast] => Lombardozzi [rft.aufirst] => Danica )
Array ( [rft.aulast] => Nabel [rft.aufirst] => Julia E. M. S. )
Array ( [rft.aulast] => Nelson [rft.aufirst] => Jacob A. )
Array ( [rft.aulast] => O'Sullivan [rft.aufirst] => Michael )
Array ( [rft.aulast] => Pallandt [rft.aufirst] => Martijn )
Array ( [rft.aulast] => Papale [rft.aufirst] => Dario )
Array ( [rft.aulast] => Peters [rft.aufirst] => Wouter )
Array ( [rft.aulast] => Pongratz [rft.aufirst] => Julia )
Array ( [rft.aulast] => Rödenbeck [rft.aufirst] => Christian )
Array ( [rft.aulast] => Sitch [rft.aufirst] => Stephen )
Array ( [rft.aulast] => Tramontana [rft.aufirst] => Gianluca )
Array ( [rft.aulast] => Walker [rft.aufirst] => Anthony )
Array ( [rft.aulast] => Weber [rft.aufirst] => Ulrich )
Array ( [rft.aulast] => Reichstein [rft.aufirst] => Markus )
doi 10.5194/bg-17-1343-2020
languages eng
url http://dx.doi.org/10.5194/bg-17-1343-2020
version 0.9
x.subjects Earth-Surface Processes
Ecology, Evolution, Behavior and Systematics
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author Jung, Martin, Schwalm, Christopher, Migliavacca, Mirco, Walther, Sophia, Camps-Valls, Gustau, Koirala, Sujan, Anthoni, Peter, Besnard, Simon, Bodesheim, Paul, Carvalhais, Nuno, Chevallier, Frédéric, Gans, Fabian, Goll, Daniel S., Haverd, Vanessa, Köhler, Philipp, Ichii, Kazuhito, Jain, Atul K., Liu, Junzhi, Lombardozzi, Danica, Nabel, Julia E. M. S., Nelson, Jacob A., O'Sullivan, Michael, Pallandt, Martijn, Papale, Dario, Peters, Wouter, Pongratz, Julia, Rödenbeck, Christian, Sitch, Stephen, Tramontana, Gianluca, Walker, Anthony, Weber, Ulrich, Reichstein, Markus
author_facet Jung, Martin, Schwalm, Christopher, Migliavacca, Mirco, Walther, Sophia, Camps-Valls, Gustau, Koirala, Sujan, Anthoni, Peter, Besnard, Simon, Bodesheim, Paul, Carvalhais, Nuno, Chevallier, Frédéric, Gans, Fabian, Goll, Daniel S., Haverd, Vanessa, Köhler, Philipp, Ichii, Kazuhito, Jain, Atul K., Liu, Junzhi, Lombardozzi, Danica, Nabel, Julia E. M. S., Nelson, Jacob A., O'Sullivan, Michael, Pallandt, Martijn, Papale, Dario, Peters, Wouter, Pongratz, Julia, Rödenbeck, Christian, Sitch, Stephen, Tramontana, Gianluca, Walker, Anthony, Weber, Ulrich, Reichstein, Markus, Jung, Martin, Schwalm, Christopher, Migliavacca, Mirco, Walther, Sophia, Camps-Valls, Gustau, Koirala, Sujan, Anthoni, Peter, Besnard, Simon, Bodesheim, Paul, Carvalhais, Nuno, Chevallier, Frédéric, Gans, Fabian, Goll, Daniel S., Haverd, Vanessa, Köhler, Philipp, Ichii, Kazuhito, Jain, Atul K., Liu, Junzhi, Lombardozzi, Danica, Nabel, Julia E. M. S., Nelson, Jacob A., O'Sullivan, Michael, Pallandt, Martijn, Papale, Dario, Peters, Wouter, Pongratz, Julia, Rödenbeck, Christian, Sitch, Stephen, Tramontana, Gianluca, Walker, Anthony, Weber, Ulrich, Reichstein, Markus
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container_issue 5
container_start_page 1343
container_title Biogeosciences
container_volume 17
description <jats:p>Abstract. FLUXNET comprises globally distributed eddy-covariance-based estimates of carbon fluxes between the biosphere and the atmosphere. Since eddy covariance flux towers have a relatively small footprint and are distributed unevenly across the world, upscaling the observations is necessary to obtain global-scale estimates of biosphere–atmosphere exchange. Based on cross-consistency checks with atmospheric inversions, sun-induced fluorescence (SIF) and dynamic global vegetation models (DGVMs), here we provide a systematic assessment of the latest upscaling efforts for gross primary production (GPP) and net ecosystem exchange (NEE) of the FLUXCOM initiative, where different machine learning methods, forcing data sets and sets of predictor variables were employed. Spatial patterns of mean GPP are consistent across FLUXCOM and DGVM ensembles (R2&gt;0.94 at 1∘ spatial resolution) while the majority of DGVMs show, for 70 % of the land surface, values outside the FLUXCOM range. Global mean GPP magnitudes for 2008–2010 from FLUXCOM members vary within 106 and 130 PgC yr−1 with the largest uncertainty in the tropics. Seasonal variations in independent SIF estimates agree better with FLUXCOM GPP (mean global pixel-wise R2∼0.75) than with GPP from DGVMs (mean global pixel-wise R2∼0.6). Seasonal variations in FLUXCOM NEE show good consistency with atmospheric inversion-based net land carbon fluxes, particularly for temperate and boreal regions (R2&gt;0.92). Interannual variability of global NEE in FLUXCOM is underestimated compared to inversions and DGVMs. The FLUXCOM version which also uses meteorological inputs shows a strong co-variation in interannual patterns with inversions (R2=0.87 for 2001–2010). Mean regional NEE from FLUXCOM shows larger uptake than inversion and DGVM-based estimates, particularly in the tropics with discrepancies of up to several hundred grammes of carbon per square metre per year. These discrepancies can only partly be reconciled by carbon loss pathways that are implicit in inversions but not captured by the flux tower measurements such as carbon emissions from fires and water bodies. We hypothesize that a combination of systematic biases in the underlying eddy covariance data, in particular in tall tropical forests, and a lack of site history effects on NEE in FLUXCOM are likely responsible for the too strong tropical carbon sink estimated by FLUXCOM. Furthermore, as FLUXCOM does not account for CO2 fertilization effects, carbon flux trends are not realistic. Overall, current FLUXCOM estimates of mean annual and seasonal cycles of GPP as well as seasonal NEE variations provide useful constraints of global carbon cycling, while interannual variability patterns from FLUXCOM are valuable but require cautious interpretation. Exploring the diversity of Earth observation data and of machine learning concepts along with improved quality and quantity of flux tower measurements will facilitate further improvements of the FLUXCOM approach overall. </jats:p>
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id ai-49-aHR0cDovL2R4LmRvaS5vcmcvMTAuNTE5NC9iZy0xNy0xMzQzLTIwMjA
imprint Copernicus GmbH, 2020
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spelling Jung, Martin Schwalm, Christopher Migliavacca, Mirco Walther, Sophia Camps-Valls, Gustau Koirala, Sujan Anthoni, Peter Besnard, Simon Bodesheim, Paul Carvalhais, Nuno Chevallier, Frédéric Gans, Fabian Goll, Daniel S. Haverd, Vanessa Köhler, Philipp Ichii, Kazuhito Jain, Atul K. Liu, Junzhi Lombardozzi, Danica Nabel, Julia E. M. S. Nelson, Jacob A. O'Sullivan, Michael Pallandt, Martijn Papale, Dario Peters, Wouter Pongratz, Julia Rödenbeck, Christian Sitch, Stephen Tramontana, Gianluca Walker, Anthony Weber, Ulrich Reichstein, Markus 1726-4189 Copernicus GmbH Earth-Surface Processes Ecology, Evolution, Behavior and Systematics http://dx.doi.org/10.5194/bg-17-1343-2020 <jats:p>Abstract. FLUXNET comprises globally distributed eddy-covariance-based estimates of carbon fluxes between the biosphere and the atmosphere. Since eddy covariance flux towers have a relatively small footprint and are distributed unevenly across the world, upscaling the observations is necessary to obtain global-scale estimates of biosphere–atmosphere exchange. Based on cross-consistency checks with atmospheric inversions, sun-induced fluorescence (SIF) and dynamic global vegetation models (DGVMs), here we provide a systematic assessment of the latest upscaling efforts for gross primary production (GPP) and net ecosystem exchange (NEE) of the FLUXCOM initiative, where different machine learning methods, forcing data sets and sets of predictor variables were employed. Spatial patterns of mean GPP are consistent across FLUXCOM and DGVM ensembles (R2&gt;0.94 at 1∘ spatial resolution) while the majority of DGVMs show, for 70 % of the land surface, values outside the FLUXCOM range. Global mean GPP magnitudes for 2008–2010 from FLUXCOM members vary within 106 and 130 PgC yr−1 with the largest uncertainty in the tropics. Seasonal variations in independent SIF estimates agree better with FLUXCOM GPP (mean global pixel-wise R2∼0.75) than with GPP from DGVMs (mean global pixel-wise R2∼0.6). Seasonal variations in FLUXCOM NEE show good consistency with atmospheric inversion-based net land carbon fluxes, particularly for temperate and boreal regions (R2&gt;0.92). Interannual variability of global NEE in FLUXCOM is underestimated compared to inversions and DGVMs. The FLUXCOM version which also uses meteorological inputs shows a strong co-variation in interannual patterns with inversions (R2=0.87 for 2001–2010). Mean regional NEE from FLUXCOM shows larger uptake than inversion and DGVM-based estimates, particularly in the tropics with discrepancies of up to several hundred grammes of carbon per square metre per year. These discrepancies can only partly be reconciled by carbon loss pathways that are implicit in inversions but not captured by the flux tower measurements such as carbon emissions from fires and water bodies. We hypothesize that a combination of systematic biases in the underlying eddy covariance data, in particular in tall tropical forests, and a lack of site history effects on NEE in FLUXCOM are likely responsible for the too strong tropical carbon sink estimated by FLUXCOM. Furthermore, as FLUXCOM does not account for CO2 fertilization effects, carbon flux trends are not realistic. Overall, current FLUXCOM estimates of mean annual and seasonal cycles of GPP as well as seasonal NEE variations provide useful constraints of global carbon cycling, while interannual variability patterns from FLUXCOM are valuable but require cautious interpretation. Exploring the diversity of Earth observation data and of machine learning concepts along with improved quality and quantity of flux tower measurements will facilitate further improvements of the FLUXCOM approach overall. </jats:p> Scaling carbon fluxes from eddy covariance sites to globe: synthesis and evaluation of the FLUXCOM approach Biogeosciences
spellingShingle Jung, Martin, Schwalm, Christopher, Migliavacca, Mirco, Walther, Sophia, Camps-Valls, Gustau, Koirala, Sujan, Anthoni, Peter, Besnard, Simon, Bodesheim, Paul, Carvalhais, Nuno, Chevallier, Frédéric, Gans, Fabian, Goll, Daniel S., Haverd, Vanessa, Köhler, Philipp, Ichii, Kazuhito, Jain, Atul K., Liu, Junzhi, Lombardozzi, Danica, Nabel, Julia E. M. S., Nelson, Jacob A., O'Sullivan, Michael, Pallandt, Martijn, Papale, Dario, Peters, Wouter, Pongratz, Julia, Rödenbeck, Christian, Sitch, Stephen, Tramontana, Gianluca, Walker, Anthony, Weber, Ulrich, Reichstein, Markus, Biogeosciences, Scaling carbon fluxes from eddy covariance sites to globe: synthesis and evaluation of the FLUXCOM approach, Earth-Surface Processes, Ecology, Evolution, Behavior and Systematics
title Scaling carbon fluxes from eddy covariance sites to globe: synthesis and evaluation of the FLUXCOM approach
title_full Scaling carbon fluxes from eddy covariance sites to globe: synthesis and evaluation of the FLUXCOM approach
title_fullStr Scaling carbon fluxes from eddy covariance sites to globe: synthesis and evaluation of the FLUXCOM approach
title_full_unstemmed Scaling carbon fluxes from eddy covariance sites to globe: synthesis and evaluation of the FLUXCOM approach
title_short Scaling carbon fluxes from eddy covariance sites to globe: synthesis and evaluation of the FLUXCOM approach
title_sort scaling carbon fluxes from eddy covariance sites to globe: synthesis and evaluation of the fluxcom approach
topic Earth-Surface Processes, Ecology, Evolution, Behavior and Systematics
url http://dx.doi.org/10.5194/bg-17-1343-2020